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In this study, Dishon Muloi and colleagues aimed to investigate the patterns of antibiotic sales in humans and livestock in urban Nairobi, Kenya, and evaluate the level of awareness and common behaviours related to antibiotic use and AMR amongst human and veterinary pharmacists. Information on antibiotic sales data was collected from drug stores across the city where sales data were interpreted as representing antibiotic usage. 

Research Highlights 

The study showed a considerable overlap in the antibiotic classes sold for human and animal use in urban Nairobi, with marked variations in the sale of some antibiotic classes such as cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones – mostly found in human drug stores. This overlap of antibiotic classes, including of critically important antimicrobials emphasises the need for prudent use of all antimicrobials and continued monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial usage in low- and middle-income countries in urban settings.


Dishon Muloi1,2,4*, Eric M Fèvre3,4*, Judy Bettridge3,4, Robert Rono4, Daniel Ong’are4, James M Hassell3,4, Maurice K Karani4, Patrick Muinde4, Bram van Bunnik1,2, Alice Street6, Margo Chase-Topping2,8, Amy B Pedersen7, Melissa J Ward2,5, Mark Woolhouse1,2

Institutions involved

1  Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences & Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
2  Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
3  Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
4  International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
5  Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
6  Social Anthropology, School of Social and Political Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
7  Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
8  The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

* Contributed equally to this work


UK Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological Sci- ence Research Council (UK), the Economic and Social Research Council (UK), the Natural Environment Re- search Council (UK), through the Environmental & Social Ecology of Human Infectious Diseases Initiative (ESEI), Grant Reference: G1100783/1. This work also received support from the CGIAR Research Program onAgriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)


More information

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Other related publications include: One Health in Action: Operational Aspects of an integrated surveillance system for zoonoses in Western Kenya