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Background: Children with under-five year age disproportionally affected with foodborne illness. Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne disease next to Norovirus infection. Macrolides are commonly prescribed as the first line of treatment for Campylobacter gastroenteritis, with fluoroquinolone and tetracycline as secondary options. However, resistance to these alternatives has been reported in various regions worldwide.

Objective:To determine the prevalence, associated risk-factors and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli among under-five children with diarrhea.

Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2022 to April 2023. The study sites were selected using a random sampling technique, while the study subjects were included using a convenient sampling technique. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples were inoculated onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and incubated for 48 hours. The suspected colonies were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to confirm the species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a disc diffusion technique. All potential covariates (independent variables) were analyzed one by one using bivariate logistic regression model to identify candidate variables with P value < 0.25. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to identify potential associated factors using the candidate variables. A p value ≤ 0.05 at a 95% confidence interval was statistically significant.

Result: Among the 428 samples, 7.0% (CI: 4.5–9.3) were confirmed Campylobacter species. The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli among under-five children was 5.1% (CI: 3.0–7.0) and 1.9% (CI: 0.7–3.3), respectively. C. jejuni (73.3%) was dominant over C. coli (26.7%). The resident, contact with domestic animals, and parents/guardians education level were significantly associated with campylobacteriosis among under-five children. One-third of the Campylobacter isolates (33.3%, 10/30) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline whereas 10.0% (3/30) were resistant to erythromycin. Furthermore, 3.3% (1/30) of the Campylobacter were found to be multidrug-resistant.

Conclusion: The prevalence of Campylobacter species was 7.0%. The resistance rate of Campylobacter species of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline-resistance strains was 33.3%. Peri-urban residence, contact with domestic animals, and low parental educational statuses were significantly associated factors with increased risk of Campylobacter infection. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and health education of personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented in the community.

Worku, M., Tessema, B., Ferede, G., Ochieng, L., Leliso, S.A., Mutua, F., Moodley, A., Grace, D. and Gelaw, B. 2024. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infection, determinants and antimicrobial resistance patterns among under-five children with diarrhea in Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia. PLOS ONE 19(7): e0304409.